Now, the moon is a sun-lit subject, so the exposure could be done at 1/500 second. But it was zoomed in to 42x plus digital zoom, so he had to use support/tripod, even with image stabilization. It's a seriously long lens you need for the moon. (And the digital zoom means that image quality is not at its best.)
So far as I know, it's a new thing that we're able to do such stuff with entry-level cameras.
Superzooms have developed. Here's a 24x Panasonic with the exceptional feature that the F:2.8 aperture is held over all the range! (Thanks to Michael Reichman.)
Jeff R took his own moon picture with the very same camera. (See comments.)
When I mentioned the P510 the first time a couple months ago, I pointed to this review, which says, reflecting Ray's feelings:
It used to be that shooting with a superzoom meant compromising. With each new generation of superzoom, though, fewer compromises are required.
With the Nikon P510 I was, for the first time, not keeping score so much as exploring a new way to see. It wasn't just the 1,000mm equivalent reach of the lens, either. It was the results I got at ISO 800 and 1,600. And the detail the 16-megapixel sensor captured.